What is Biodiversity Investment

What is Biodiversity Investment

Do you wish to know what is biodiversity investment is? Yes, Biodiversity may sound like a complex scientific concept, but it’s simply referring to the incredible diversity of plant and animal life on Earth.

From tiny microbes in the soil to magnificent elephants roaming the savanna, biodiversity encompasses all species and ecosystems on our planet.

And this web of life is under threat.

Species extinction rates are estimated to be 1,000 times higher than normal background levels. We’ve lost over 60% of global wildlife populations in just the last 50 years. Iconic ecosystems like the Amazon rainforest and coral reefs are disappearing before our eyes.

The causes? Unsustainable land use, pollution, climate change, overexploitation of nature. The very systems that sustain human civilization are fraying at the seams. The food we eat, the air we breathe, the stability of our climate – all imperiled by catastrophic biodiversity loss.

So where does investing come in?

A new class of investments is emerging that aims to not just preserve, but regenerate biodiversity through market-based solutions. Biodiversity investment channels capital into conservation efforts, sustainable resource use, and the emerging “bioeconomy.”

In this guide, we’ll cover:

  • Why biodiversity matters economically as well as ecologically
  • Key investment approaches from public equities to offsets
  • How to measure impact and assess risks
  • Projections for the growth of biodiversity financing

Let’s start by understanding exactly why biodiversity is the infrastructure of life.

What is Biodiversity Investment and Why Biodiversity Matters

Biodiversity simply refers to the variety of life at genetic, species, and ecosystem levels. But describing it as “variety” hardly does justice to the complex interdependent web that sustains not just wildlife, but humanity as well.

Some key reasons why maintaining biodiversity is crucial:

  • Ecosystem Services: Healthy ecosystems provide trillions of dollars worth of free “services” like water filtration, flood control, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, and soil health that make life possible.
  • Stabilizing Systems: More biodiverse systems are generally more stable, resilient, and productive over the long term due to genetic diversity and functional redundancies.
  • Source of Innovation: Nearly all our food crops, medicines, and industrial materials have wild origins. Preserving gene pools preserves option value for humanity.
  • Intrinsic and Cultural Value: Most people intuitively value wildlife and nature – for ethical, aesthetic, cultural, even spiritual reasons.

Biodiversity took billions of years to evolve into intricately balanced global ecosystems. But Recent UN estimates show global wildlife populations declined over 60% since 1970. Key habitats like tropical forests and wetlands are shrinking at alarming rates.

The causes boil down to unsustainable human activity:

  • Habitat Loss and Fragmentation: For agriculture, roads, settlements, etc. Leading cause of extinction.
  • Overexploitation: Overfishing, overhunting, illegal wildlife trade, unsustainable forestry practices.
  • Invasive Species: Spread through globalized trade and transportation networks. Crowd out native species.
  • Pollution: Pesticides, plastics, industrial chemicals building up in land and water systems.
  • Climate Change: Warming temperatures, acidifying oceans, intensifying extreme weather.

The consequences of allowing this decline to continue could be environmentally and economically catastrophic. Coral reefs support 25% of all marine life. Bees pollinate 75% of global food crops. Microbes in soil facilitate 95% of food production. And so on.

Table 1 provides an overview of important ecosystem services and examples of what would be lost if they continue to degrade:

Ecosystem ServiceExamplesLoss of This Service Would Mean…
PollinationBees, birds, bats, butterflies75% drop in crop output, starvation
Soil HealthMicrobes, fungi, nematodes95% drop in crop yields, malnutrition
Coastal ProtectionMangroves, coral reefs, sand dunesIncreased storm damage, flooding
Carbon SequestrationForests, phytoplankton, soil organismsAccelerating climate change, displacement
Nutrient CyclingEarthworms, nematodes, microbesReduced soil fertility, lower yields
Seed DispersalBirds, mammalsReduced forest regeneration, biodiversity decline

Collapsing ecosystems also introduce new risks like emerging infectious diseases and uncontrolled wildfires. Ultimately, declining nature threatens political stability, livelihoods, cultural identity, and human health on a global scale.

And while the figures above sound dire, there’s still time to change course. Ambitious conservation efforts have brought iconic species like pandas, whales, and bald eagles back from the brink.

And we already have the solutions – what’s needed is the political will to enact them, and the funding to execute on a global scale.

This is where biodiversity investment comes in.

The Investment Case for Biodiversity

Biodiversity may seem like a fluffy environmental issue, but make no mistake – it poses tangible financial risks.

Most economic activity and corporate profits are directly or indirectly dependent on nature. Over half the world’s total GDP – $44 trillion – is moderately or highly dependent on ecosystem services. Chemical, construction, agriculture, fashion – thousands of industries rely on biodiverse natural inputs.

Consider the risks:

  • Food & Water Crises: Reduced crop pollination and soil health degrade agricultural output and food security. Lack of natural water filtration drives water scarcity.
  • Supply Chain Disruptions: Deforestation, overfishing, and hunting threaten key commodities like timber, rubber, cotton, and rare earth minerals.
  • Health Issues: Pandemics like COVID-19 result from wildlife trade and encroachment on habitats. Lyme disease, West Nile virus also linked to biodiversity loss.
  • Insurance Liabilities: With intensifying natural disasters like floods, fires, and storms, insurance firms face rising claims and uncertainty.
  • Litigation: Governments and activists targeting companies for environmental damages, particularly big oil, agriculture, and consumer goods.
  • Reputational Damage: In era of rising eco-conscious consumers, biodiversity negligence hurts brand image and loyalty.

On the flip side, preserving nature offers huge growth potential:

  • New Materials: Bio-based polymers, enzymes, natural chemicals, crops can substitute unsustainable alternatives in a range of products.
  • Ecotourism: National parks and protected land areas already generate billions in visitor spending and employ millions globally.
  • Regenerative Agriculture: Holistic techniques like no-till, intercropping, and pasture cropping can increase yields and profit sustainably.
  • Forest Protection: Guarding high biodiversity forests protects crucial carbon sinks to mitigate climate change.
  • Impact Brands: Leveraging conservation programs in marketing helps companies attract and retain environmentally minded customers.

Though abstract as a concept, biodiversity underlies so many economic fundamentals that the business case for investing in its sustained health is compelling.

A 2020 World Economic Forum report estimates that $10 trillion USD could be generated globally over the next decade through nature-positive solutions in food, land use, infrastructure, energy, and resource use.

And more capital than ever is flowing into this conservation investment opportunity…

Biodiversity Investment Vehicles and Strategies

Biodiversity investment aims to not just protect existing ecosystems, but actively restore habitats, revive populations, and nurture new sustainable industries.

There are several approaches investors are using:

Direct Conservation Investments

The most straightforward approach – directly fund conservation activities like:

  • Protecting critical habitats through land acquisition for reserves
  • Reforestation and afforestation programs
  • Species reintroduction and breeding programs
  • Sustainable agriculture education and subsidization
  • Anti-poaching and illegal wildlife trade deterrance

Works best for philanthropic foundations, NGOs, governments, and ultra high-net-worth individuals with patient capital and limited need for financial returns.

Public Equities in Sustainable Companies

Investing in public companies specifically driving biodiversity innovation:

Sustainable Agriculture & Forestry

  • Certified sustainable palm oil producers
  • Eco-friendly wood product companies
  • Regenerative agriculture biotech startups

Habitat Protection

  • Conservation land brokers
  • Wetland mitigation bankers
  • Forestry management firms


  • Renewable ocean energy
  • Biodegradable materials
  • Green infrastructure

The upside with listed equities is liquidity. The downside is dilution – only a small portion of the investment directly supports conservation. But portfolios in these spaces Signal market demand.

Green, Blue and Sustainability Bonds

Bonds where proceeds finance environmentally friendly projects – including wildlife and habitat conservation initiatives by governments, municipalities NGOs.


  • Green bonds fund renewable energy, clean transport, sustainable land use projects.
  • Blue bonds fund marine/ocean conservation specifically.
  • Sustainability bonds take a broader approach to funding projects with environmental/social impact.

$1 trillion in cumulative green bonds issued to date. Great way for large institutions to fund conservation at scale. However, impact reporting remains a challenge.

Biodiversity & Habitat Credits

Offset schemes where developers or polluting companies directly pay for conservation projects to compensate habitat loss:

  • Biodiversity credits: Restore or conserve habitat for protected species elsewhere.
  • Wetlands credits: Conserve or create wetlands to offset those drained or damaged.
  • Carbon credits: Pay to protect forests or plant trees to sequester CO2.

Creates biodiversity market bringing new finance streams to conservation. But “no net loss” approach is controversial and oversight complex.

Impact & Venture Capital Investment

Specialized financial vehicles taking equity positions in startups applying technology to conservation:

  • Biotech for crop enhancement, soil analysis, genomic biodiversity mapping
  • Sensors, drones, satellite data analytics to monitor ecosystems
  • eDNA sampling to track elusive wildlife genetics
  • Blockchain for transparent sustainable supply chain monitoring

Huge growth potential as biodiversity tech collects better data and enhances modeling while startups disrupt ecosystem-harming industries. But risks inherent to investing in early stage innovation before stabilization.

Table 2 summarizes the risk, return and liquidity profiles of major biodiversity investment approaches:

Investment VehicleReturn PotentialRisk LevelLiquidity
Direct ConservationLowHighLow
Public EquitiesHighModerateHigh
Green/Blue BondsLow/ModerateLowModerate
Biodiversity CreditsModerateModerateLow
Venture CapitalVery HighVery HighLow
While biodiversity investment options span from philanthropic donations to high risk/high reward speculation on startups, all play a role in directing more capital towards conservation efforts.

Measuring the Impact of Biodiversity Investments

A common criticism leveled at biodiversity financing schemes is that the positive impacts can be ambiguous and difficult to quantify compared to metrics like tons of CO2 avoided. How can investors truly assess progress?

While the full picture is complex, a range of biodiversity performance metrics are emerging:

Species Preservation & Population Growth

  • IUCN Red List conservation status changes
  • Population sizes restored to sustainable thresholds
  • Endemic species stabilized/recovering

Habitat Restoration and Protection

  • Hectares afforested, reforested, preserved
  • Percent of marine protected areas under management
  • Wetlands successfully created or conserved

Soil Health, Nutrient Cycles, Ecosystem Regeneration

  • Metrics like soil organic matter, microbial activity, vegetation cover
  • Nutrient levels and water cycling capacity
  • Food web structures re-established

Carbon Sequestration and Emissions Reductions

  • Tonnes of CO2 durably sequestered or avoided
  • Climate regulation impact of ecosystem regeneration

Rather than focusing on a single metric, portfolios should take a systems approach – tracking interconnected progress restoring ecological stability.

Frameworks like the Species Threat Abatement and Recovery Metric (STAR) integrate multiple indicators covering species improvements, habitat gains, and threats reduced. Investors like HSBC use STAR to underpin $1B in conservation finance tracking everything from coral rehabilitation to anti-poaching efforts.

As measurement methodologies mature, impact investors can more confidently gauge if projects funded create meaningful change and positive biodiversity returns.

The Future of Biodiversity Investing

While still a nascent field, biodiversity investment is set for dramatic growth in recognition of its importance to economic stability and to meet sustainability targets like the UN SDGs and commitments under the Paris Climate Agreement.

Conservation Finance Potential

Current annual investments in biodiversity protection sit around $124-143 billion – but need to be 4-10 times higher to meaningfully counter degradation.

Organizations like the Paulson Institute estimate $700 billion or more in annual opportunities for private capital across conservation sectors – from regenerative agriculture to habitat restoration.

Growth Trajectory

The momentum behind concepts like natural capital and biodiversity disclosures indicates that valuing and integrating nature into financial decisions will only increase. Recent years saw commitments like 130 banks representing $86 trillion in assets vowing to align lending and portfolios with biodiversity goals.

And the policy landscape is shifting. 70 countries are party to the Leaders’ Pledge for Nature signed at COP26. Over 90 now collaborate through the Taskforce on Nature-Related Financial Disclosures (TNFD) to develop biodiversity and ecosystem risk reporting standards.

As frameworks emerge, investors can better understand dependencies and impacts on nature – likely accelerating capital flows to conservation efforts. UNEP FI projects that biodiversity and ecosystem services could constitute up to 30% of portfolio risk exposure within a decade for many banks and funds.

Key Challenges

Still, barriers persist to fully integrating biodiversity priorities into mainstream finance:

  • Measurement Difficulties: Comprehensively tracking species populations, habitat quality and cumulative regeneration impact remains highly complex, unlike reporting simple CO2 emission cuts for example. Methodologies are still developing requiring quite advanced monitoring capabilities.
  • Long Investment Horizons: Restoring degraded ecosystems can take decades before financially harvestable resources fully regenerate – misaligned with expectations of quick returns in commercial investing. Requires patient capital.
  • Lack of Asset Class Recognition: No universal framework exists defining biodiversity investment and conservation finance as a distinct asset class with unique risk attributes and methodologies. Hampers institutional adoption and allocation of dedicated funds.
  • Underpricing of Nature’s Benefits: Our financial system fails to value vital ecosystem services, allowing quick exploitation for profits while ignoring longer term externalities. Perverse subsidies driving deforestation for agriculture and overfishing persist. Proper pricing mechanisms recognizing nature’s worth in economic decisions are essential.
  • Greenwashing Risks: As biodiversity financing grows prominent, standards are still evolving allowing potential for organizations making misleading or unsubstantiated claims about environmental benefits. Robust reporting frameworks and auditing will be critical to ensure credibility.

In Sum

While no silver bullet solution, rapidly expanding investment explicitly targeting conservation and restoration of nature through market incentives offers real promise helping to value biodiversity appropriately in business decisions.

Combined with policy reforms, scientific guidance, and community participation, billions flowing into preserving ecosystem services and regenerating degraded habitats can tip economic scales away from blind exploitation towards sustainable use for generations to come.

The opportunity for investors? Catalyze and ride a new wave targeting perhaps the greatest market failure and undervalued asset in human history – fostering biodiversity not just for ethics or aesthetics, but for civilization’s enduring health, prosperity and stability.

Our species numbered just 1 million when the last ice age ended 12,000 years ago amidst an abundance of biodiversity.

With swelling populations putting extreme pressure on ecosystems, prioritizing diversity in life along diversity in asset management portfolios will only grow in necessity and urgency.


Why Is Biodiversity Important To Investors?

Biodiversity underpins the global ecosystems that all economic activity relies on in some form. Preserving diverse ecosystems preserves option value for new medicines, crops, materials and resilience against disasters.

Many sectors from agriculture to pharma to apparel depend on genetic variety sustaining nature’s health.

Investors are increasingly realizing just how exposed portfolios are to risks of biodiversity loss. For example, over $44 trillion of world GDP depends moderately or highly on pollination, water security, storm barriers, carbon sequestration from nature. As iconic ecosystems decline, everyone has a stake in conservation.

How Can We Invest In Ways That Promote Biodiversity?

Numerous avenues exist for investors to direct capital in biodiversity-positive ways:

  • Public equities in firms sustainably managing forests, fisheries, agriculture
  • Green and blue bonds funding habitat conservation/restoration
  • Biodiversity credits from developers to offset damage they cause
  • Venture capital for emerging tech around conservation drones, genomics, sensors
  • Direct project finance protecting species like rhinos, elephants, whales

Choosing fund managers proactively engaging with companies to reduce ecosystem impacts and even set internal carbon prices also influences biodiversity.

What Is The Meaning Of Biodiversity Finance?

Biodiversity finance refers to the rising field of investments explicitly targeting conservation of ecosystems, species and genetic diversity.

It includes creation of new financial vehicles and asset classes allowing capital to flow at scale into nature regeneration projects from coral reef revivals to forest landscape restoration worldwide.

What Is Investment In Environment?

Environmental investment aims to drive positive impact and change around major ecological issues like climate change, water scarcity, air pollution, waste, ecosystem degradation and biodiversity decline. Major categories include:

Sustainable Investing – ESG screenings and shareholder engagement seeking to make public companies/sectors less damaging over time through shifts in business practices, operations, supply chains.

Conservation Finance – Direct funding of environmental projects like protecting wetlands, managing marine reserves, afforestation efforts often generating verification credits.

Cleantech VC – Early stage investment in green innovation from renewable energies to biodegradable plastics to plant-based proteins seeking substitutions for unsustainable incumbent industries.

Carbon Markets – Trading mechanisms where companies or governments buy credits balanced by emissions reductions elsewhere to offset environmental footprint.

Do Investors Care About Biodiversity?

Absolutely. Over $2.7 trillion is held in ESG-branded funds globally oriented around social responsibility and environmental sustainability. And biodiversity is increasingly recognized as a key metric.

Guided by principles like double materiality, investors see risks in portfolios from degraded ecosystems as well as opportunities fostering conservation solutions.

From shareholders pressuring companies on deforestation to fund managers allocating capital to sustainable forestry and regenerative agriculture, investors care because biodiversity overlaps with financial materiality.

Nature underpins global GDP, and its decline threatens market stability. Expect its consideration in investment processes to only grow.

What Are 4 Reasons Why Biodiversity Is Important?

1. Ecosystem Services – Nature provides trillions in free pollination, water security, soil fertility benefits that vanish as habitats degrade.

2. Climate Stability – Forests, oceans, wetlands all regulate greenhouse gases and temperatures.

3. Economic Materials – Most our food, medicines, industrial goods depend on genetic variety in nature.

4. Resilience – More biodiverse systems generally more productive and stable over long term due to diversity.

How Can We Value Biodiversity?

Biodiversity is priceless yet free in financial terms, allowing its severe undervaluation and exploitation. Tools like mapping ecosystem services to sectors, using proxies like conservation costs or habitat pricing schemes, as well as integrating natural capital into national accounting measures like adjusting GDP for environmental damage help appropriately value intact nature.

Of course, no amount of money can truly offset destroyed ecosystems and lost species. So policy measures like subsidies shifting away from industries degrading environments towards those enhancing them combined with moves towards circular economies can also better align market mechanisms with biodiversity priorities.

How Can We Solve Biodiversity Loss?

Holistic solutions require global cooperation on multiple fronts simultaneously:

  • Ambitious conservation targets in protected lands and oceans
  • Sustainable best practices mandated for agriculture, fishing, forestry, infrastructure
  • Spatial planning balancing development with ecosystems
  • Redirecting billions in perverse subsidies from sectors like fossil fuels towards habitat restoration efforts
  • Mainstreaming natural capital & biodiversity values into financial decisions
  • Supporting rights and livelihoods of indigenous communities protecting ecosystems

While the task is monumental, existing solutions from regenerative techniques to ecosystem protections implemented at scale today can yet preserve biodiversity for generations.

What Are The Benefits From Biodiversity?

Scientists recognize key categories of biodiversity benefits:

Provisioning – Foods, fibers, timber, biochemicals, natural medicines, water security

Regulating – Climate and temperature regulation, carbon sequestration, pollination, pest control

Supporting – Soil fertility, nutrient cycling, waste decomposition, water cycling

Preservation – Ecosystem resilience, genetic pools sustaining adaption and evolution

Cultural – Aesthetics, recreation, physical/mental health, tourism, education, spirituality

From fundamental biophysical processes facilitating life to inspiration for art to ingredients for a third of pharmaceutical drugs, biodiverse ecosystems grant humanity immeasurable gifts.

Yet by eroding species abundance, populations and habitat integrity, we threaten these very provisions biodiversity affords.

Key Takeaways on Biodiversity Investment

In this guide we covered:

  • Why Biodiversity Matters: Underpins ecosystem services society and markets profoundly depend upon – from pollination to climate regulation to nutrient cycling.
  • Catastrophic Declines: Species populations down 60% since 1970. Tropical forests, coral reefs diminishing rapidly. Driven by land conversion, overexploitation, pollution, invasive species and climate change.
  • Investment Case: $44 trillion in global GDP moderately or highly dependent on vulnerable nature. Biodiversity loss poses financial risks, while conservation efforts offer innovation opportunities.
  • Investment Vehicles: From direct conservation projects, sustainable public equities, green bonds funding habitats, and biodiversity credit offset schemes to venture funds commercializing conservation tech.
  • Impact Metrics: Tracking species populations, habitats restored, ecosystem vital signs like soil health and nutrient flows, plus emissions reductions offers a systemic view on regeneration progress.
  • Growth Trajectory: Biodiversity investment projected to hit $700B+ annually this decade as frameworks like TNFD raise awareness of nature-related risks and dependencies.
  • Key Challenges: Measurement difficulties, long time horizons, lack of asset class recognition, underpricing ecosystem services, and greenwashing risks persist.

While an emerging field, biodiversity investment


Biodiversity investment intertwines sustaining Earth’s web of life with sustaining returns. We covered how declining ecosystems pose financial risks while conservation efforts present innovation opportunities.

As frameworks value natural capital, capital must flow into nature’s regeneration.

Remember ecosystems provide services irreplacable by technology. But habitats can rebound with timely protection and restoration. Will you join us answering the call? Together, our portfolios can proliferate nature’s diverse gifts for generations.

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